We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Linda Lawrence, MD, for her assistance writing the vision content on our website. A co-author of the textbook Pediatric Opthalmology: Current Thought and A Practice Guide, Dr. Lawrence is also a volunteer faculty member of Project ORBIS, a global nonprofit aimed at helping visually impaired children in developing countries.

American Optometric Association website. https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/visual-acuity?sso=y. Accessed June 7, 2017.

Arash Sahraie, Nicola Smania, Josef Zihl, Use of NeuroEyeCoach™ to Improve Eye Movement Efficacy in Patients with Homonymous Visual Field Loss, BioMed Research International, 2016, 2016, 1

Assessments for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, American Foundation for the Blind FamilyConnect

Benefits of Orientation and Mobility (O&M), Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.  Accessed May 31, 2017

Cortical Visual Impairment in Children, American Foundation for the Blind

Cortical Visual Impairment, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Neurological Vision Loss, American Foundation for the Blind. . Accessed May 30, 2017.

Cukiert A, et al. Outcome after hemispherectomy in hemiplegic adult patients with refractory epilepsy associated with early middle cerebral artery infarcts. Epilepsia. 2009 Jun;50(6):1381-4.

College of Optometrists in Vision Development

CVI Scotland

David SS, Chapman AJ, Foot HC, Sheehy NP. Peripheral vision and child pedestrian accidents. Br J Psychol. 1986 Nov; 77 ( Pt 4):433-50.

Donahue SP1, Haun AK. Exotropia and face turn in children with homonymous hemianopia. J Neuroophthalmol. 2007 Dec;27(4):304-7.

Dutton GN & Bax M. (2010) Visual impairment in children due to damage to the brain. Clinics in Developmental Medicine No 186. London: MacKeith Press.

Eligibility Determinations for Children Suspected of Having a Visual Impairment Including Blindness under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, USDOE, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services

Goodwin D. Homonymous hemianopia: challenges and solutions. Clinical Ophthalmology 2014;8:1919-1927.

Hemianopsia: Loss of Half of the Visual Field After Stroke or Traumatic Brain Injury The Low Vision Centers of Indiana website.


Huber, A. Homonymous hemianopia after occipital lobectomy. Am. J of Ophthalmology. (1962) 623-629.

Kapoor N, Ciuffreda K. Vision deficits following acquired brain injury in Cristian A., Medical management of adults with neurologic disabilities. New York, NY: Demos Medical Publishing; 2009;407-23.

Kedar S, et al.. Pediatric homonymous hemianopia. J AAPOS. 2006 Jun;10(3):249-52.

Jaeger W, Krastel H, Braun S. Cerebral achromatopsia (symptoms, course, differential diagnosis and strategy of the study). I]” (1988) Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 193 (6): 627–34.

Koenraads, Y.,  van der linden, D., van Schooenveld, M. Visual function and compensatory mechanisms for hemianopia after hemispherectomy in children.  2014 Epilepsia, 55(6):909–917.

Lachenmayr B. Visual field and road traffic. How does peripheral vision function? Ophthalmologe. 2006 May;103(5):373-81.

Lane AR, Smith DT, Schenk T. Clinical treatment options for patients with homonymous visual field defects. Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ). 2008;2(1):93-102.

Leffa A, Schofield T. Rehabilitation of hemianopia. Current Opinion in Neurology 2009, 22:36–40.

Lueck, A. H. (2006). Issues in intervention for children with visual impairment or visual dysfunction due to brain injury in E. Dennison & A. H. Lueck (Eds.). Proceedings of the Summit on Cerebral/Cortical Visual Impairment: Educational, Family, and Medical Perspectives, April 30, 2005. New York: AFB Press. pp. 121-130

Lueck, H, & Dutton, GN. (Eds.) (2015). Impairment of vision due to disorders of the visual brain in childhood:  A practical approach. New York: AFB Press. J AAPOS. 1997 Dec;1(4):209-13.

López L, Thomson A, Rabinowicz AL. Assessment of colour vision in epileptic patients exposed to single-drug therapy. Eur Neurol. 1999;41(4):201-5.

Sabira K. et al. Compensatory strategies following visual search training in patients with homonymous hemianopia: an eye movement study. J Neurol. 2010 Nov; 257(11): 1812–1821.

National Association for Parents of Children with Visual Impairments (NAPVI):  212‐769‐7819

Neuro Optometric Rehabilitation Association

Overlooking our vision Cameron McCrodan.  TEDxVictoria. Published on Dec 22, 2014

Paysse EA, Coats DK. Anomalous head posture with early-onset homonymous hemianopia.  J AAPOS. December 1997, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 209–213.

Perez, C., & Chokron, S. Rehabilitation of homonymous hemianopia: insight into blindsight. 2008 Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 8, 82.

Philip, S. S. and Dutton, G. N. (2014), Identifying and characterising cerebral visual impairment in children: a review, Clin Exp Optom, 97: 196–208.

Ptito A, Leh SE. Neural substrates of blindsight after hemispherectomy. Neuroscientist. 2007 Oct;13(5):506-18.

Ptito A, Fortin A, Ptito M. ‘Seeing’ in the blind hemifield following hemispherectomy. Prog Brain Res. 2001; 134:367-78.

Childhood Brain Tumor website: The Visual System and Childhood Brain Tumor. Michael X. Repka, M.D. Professor of Ophthalmology, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Accessed June 2, 2017.

Rath-Wilson, K, Guitton, D. Oculomotor control after hemidecortication: a single hemisphere encodes corollary discharges for bilateral saccades. Cortex. 2015 Feb; 63:232-49.

Saccade Control in Reading http://www.lookingforlearning.com/assess/sac.htm

Schuett S1, Heywood CA, Kentridge RW, Zihl J. The significance of visual information processing in reading: Insights from hemianopic dyslexia. 2008 Neuropsychologia. Aug;46(10):2445-62.

Schuett S, Heywood CA, Kentridge RW, Zihl J. Rehabilitation of hemianopic dyslexia: are words necessary for re-learning oculomotor control? Brain (2008), 131, 3156 ^3168

Spotlight Gateway

Urbanski M, Coubard O, Bourlon C. Visualizing the blind brain: brain imaging of visual field defects from early recovery to rehabilitation techniques. Integrative Neuroscience 2004.

van Waveren M, Jägle H, Besch D.Graefes. Management of strabismus with hemianopic visual field defects. Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013 Feb; 251(2):575-84.

Visual Field Loss in Children, Perkins School for the Blind. Accessed May 30, 2017.

Visually Impaired Students to Benefit from Collaboration Among Ophthalmologists and Leading Vision Service Organizations, Accessed May 30, 2017

Wikipedia contributors. Two-streams hypothesis. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. August 20, 2017, 19:57 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Two-streams_hypothesis&oldid=796430832. Accessed October 16, 2017